Vikram launches strategic cooperation to enter the Finnish market

VikramSolar’s polycrystalline Eldora solar modules are certified for area loads of 5,400 Pa and are therefore especially suited to the extreme conditions in Finland. JuhaPölönen – Partner, Sales & Marketing at Finnwind Oy: “Finland has harsh weather conditions and solar panels must not only resist the heavy snow loads but also perform for many years […]

Intersolar India 2016: Dynamic Expansion In The Indian Solar Market

The Indian solar market is experiencing strong growth, bringing it ever closer to the Indian government’s goal of increasing the installed photovoltaic (PV) capacity to 100 gigawatts (GW) by 2022. Against the backdrop of this progress, Intersolar India opened today in the Bombay Exhibition Center in Mumbai. Over 230 exhibitors are presenting their products, services […]

Shri Piyush Goyal Lays Foundation Stone for Atal Akshay Urja Bhawan

Shri Piyush Goyal, Union Minister of State (IC) for Power, Coal, New and Renewable Energy and Mines, laid the foundation stone for Atal Akshay Urja Bhawan here recently. The building has been named after former Prime Minister of India, Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee, as he laid the foundation stone for the Wind Turbine Testing Station […]

Sathavahana Ispat in talks to raise Rs500 crore in debt funding

Sathavahana Ispat Ltd is in talks with Piramal Enterprises Ltd’s structured financing group (SFG) and others to raise as much as Rs500 crore in debt funding, two people aware of the development said. “They are in talks with Piramal’s SFG to raise around Rs400-500 crore. The idea is to refinance their entire existing debt to bring […]

Mumbai Based VC Firm Next Orbit To Raise $750 Mn Fund

Next Orbit Ventures, a Mumbai-based venture capital firm is reportedly in talks with a few UAE investors to raise funds for its $750 Mn plus fund. As mentioned in an official statement, 18 UAE entities like Mubadala, DP World, Etisalat, Emmar etc., have shown keen interest in investing in this fund and its project. 49% of […]

India receives payment for 500MW SunEdison solar project

State-owned Solar Energy Corp. of India said the government received fees needed for a 500-megawatt solar park, won by bankrupt renewable-energy developer SunEdison Inc., to go ahead. Solar-park charges of Rs.200 crores along with signed implementation agreements have been received, SECI managing director Ashvini Kumar said in an interview. SunEdison Energy India Pvt., a subsidiary of […]


Greenlight Planet Introduces the Sun King Charge, Its Most Affordable Dual Task Solar Light and Mobile Charging Solution

Greenlight Planet Introduces the Sun King Charge, Its Most Affordable Dual Task Solar Light and Mobile Charging Solution.With the Sun King Charge, consumers can use the lamp and solar panel independently of each other for hours or days at a time. This enables consumers to light their homes or workplace and charge their USB devices […]

Panasonic Launches New HIT® N295 PV Module For Europe

Panasonic has announced the launch of its new HIT® N295 solar module for Europe. The latest addition to the company’s high-efficiency product portfolio is the most powerful sub-1.6m² solar panel available on the continent and provides installers with one of the most comprehensive, flexible solar offerings on the market to deliver more power on any […]

SMA Introduces First Freestanding Inverter for Commercial PV Systems

SMA Solar Technology AG (SMA) has expanded its internationally successful Sunny Tripower string inverter family with the third generation. At Solar Power International 2016, which currently takes place in Las Vegas, Nevada, visitors have the opportunity to see the new Sunny Tripower CORE1 for the first time. The 50 kW string inverter is designed for […]

SolarWorld Will Unveil AC Solar Panel

SolarWorld, the largest U.S. crystalline-silicon solar technology manufacturer for more than 40 years, announced recently that the company will debut an integrated alternating-current (AC) solar panel at the trade show Solar Power International. The company will unveil the SolarWorld AC Module – available for purchase early next year – at its booth at the largest trade show […]

MiaSolé Announces New Products that Revolutionize Solar Industry – Next Generation, Flexible Ultra-light Solar Technology

Timed with the Solar Power International event in Las Vegas, MiaSolé recently announced the availability of its Next Generation Flexible Ultra-Light Solar Technology Products. As solar power is one of the fastest growing and most promising clean energy sources with almost 70GW of worldwide installations forecast in 2016, MiaSole’s Next Generation Flexible technology delivers significantly higher […]

SPI 2016: Hanwha Q CELLS Completes Strong Q.ANTUM Portfolio with Monocrystalline Solar Module Series “Q.PEAK”

Hanwha Q CELLS Co., Ltd., one of the world’s largest photovoltaic manufacturers of high-quality, high-efficiency solar modules, today announced that it will unveil a complete series of new monocrystalline solar modules and prototypes based on the company’s proprietary Q.ANTUM technology at Solar Power International in Las Vegas from September 13-15, 2016. The new monocrystalline Q.ANTUM […]


NSPCL pays Dividend of Rs. 120 crore for FY 2015-16

Shri Manash Sarkar, CEO, NSPCL along with Shri S. V. Shahi, CFO, NSPCL presented the final dividend cheque today to Shri Gurdeep Singh, CMD, NTPC. Shri A. K. Jha, Dir (Technical), Shri S. C. Pandey, Dir (Proj), Shri Saptarshi Roy, ED (CP& CC) and Shri K. K. Sharma, Dir (O) & Chairman NSPCL were also […]

India offers solar plant in Trincomalee

A month after Sri Lanka decided to scrap a coal power project involving the NTPC, in Trincomalee, India has offered to build a solar power plant in the port town. Prime Minister Narendra Modi brought up the matter in his recent meeting with President Maithripala Sirisena in Goa, on the sidelines of the BRICS summit, highly-placed […]

India, Myanmar to enhance security, trade ties

As Myanmar embarks on a journey of democracy and development, India recently assured it of unstinted support as the two traditionally close neighbours agreed to enhance ties in a range of areas including security and trade during talks between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Myanmar’s top leader Aung Sung Suu Kyi. The two sides signed three […]

India’s solar sector outlook positive: Report

India’s solar sector outlook is positive in view of a strong government support for the renewable energy sector to achieve the target of 40GW of installed rooftop solar power by 2022 along with high investor interest, says a report. “We maintain our view that inefficiencies in the power grid infrastructure, power supply shortages and the […]

MNRE: 3-Days Skill Development Program On “Designing of Concentrated Solar Thermal & Solar Water Heating System”

3-Days Skill Development Program On “Designing of Concentrated Solar Thermal & Solar Water Heating System”….. For more information please see above link: (1) Related posts: NISE:3-Days Skill Development Program On “Concentrated Solar Thermal & Solar Water Heating System” NISE:3-Days Training Program On “Designing of Concentrated Solar Thermal & Solar Water Heating System” MNRE:Fifth, 3-Day Skill […]

Suzlon and Canadian Solar partner for 30 MW solar projects in Telangana

Suzlon Group, one of the leading renewable energy solutions providers in the world, recently announced a joint venture with Canadian Solar, one of the world’s largest solar energy companies, for two solar projects of 15 MW each at the sites of Ramannapet and Kamareddy, Telangana. Canadian Solarshall acquire 49% stake in Avighna Solarfarms Limited and Amun Solarfarms Limited, the special […]

Energy Storage

Utilities in North America, Europe, and Asia Pacific Have Emerged as the Top Global Consumers of Energy Storage

A recent report from Navigant Research provides an overview of issues facing utilities as they seek to integrate energy storage, including strategies and examples from countries around the world. Utilities represent one of the most important drivers for enabling energy storage to scale globally due to buying power and other factors, making continued innovation important. Three […]

Eos Energy Storage Announces Initial Closing of Private Placement of Approximately $23.0 Million

Eos Energy Storage LLC, a developer and manufacturer of grid-scale battery systems, recently announced that it has completed the initial closing of the sale of preferred units in a private placement transaction resulting in gross proceeds of approximately $23.0 million. The Company expects to use the net proceeds of the private placement for scale-up of contract […]

TrinaBEST and MPower Announce Strategic Partnership

TrinaBEST, announced recently its strategic partnership with MPower. TrinaBEST will work through MPower to distribute residential energy storage products and bespoke solutions in Australia and New Zealand. Following energy storage product upgrades and a successful Product Launch event to the market this month in Melbourne, TrinaBEST, through MPower, will be distributing its latest system approach Lithium Iron Phosphate products: PowerCube […]

Flywheel Energy Storage Market Worth $477.8 Million by 2024: Grand View Research, Inc.

The global flywheel energy storage market is projected to reach USD 477.8 million by 2024, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Increasing demand for uninterrupted power supply and growing energy storage industry are expected to fuel the growth of this market. Flywheel systems store and regulate electricity by spinning continuously and […]


Renewables are often only as useful as the grid they feed

Scotland recently experienced one of its windiest days of the year with gusts reaching over 180 km/h on top of the country’s highest mountains. While they were disruptive to trains, ferries and car traffic, the winds had the capacity to meet the entirety of Scotland’s electricity needs for the day, according to a report in […]

Its Role in Achieving BRICS Renewable Energy Targets

Its Role in Achieving BRICS Renewable Energy Targets….. For more information please see above link: (4) Related posts: BRICS need addl USD51 bln annually to meet renewable targets BRICS New Development Bank to finance its first renewable energy project — Indian PM BRICS New Development Bank to finance its first renewable energy project — Indian […]

IEEFA Global: A $51 Billion Gap (and a $51 Billion Opportunity) in BRICS Nations’ Renewable Energy Development

While some $130 billion was invested last year in renewable-energy development in the BRICS countries—Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa—billions more are required if these countries are to meet their commitments to climate-change mitigation policies. The four countries, in all, have announced goals that will require an annual investment over the next few years of […]

Researchers at IISER used human hair to produce cathodes for solar cells

Researchers at the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research in Kolkata have found a new way to produce cathodes for solar cell. The IISER researchers have used human hair to produce cost-effective, metal-free cathodes for use in solar cells. The results have been published in the journal Carbon. This is the first time where a bio-waste-derived electrode […]

Asia - Pacific

GE Leverages Its Local Expertise to Provide Proven Solutions to Leading Wind Turbine OEM XEMC Windpower in China

Driven by energy security, decarburization and industrial benefit, the Chinese government has set up an ambitious plan to achieve 30-gigawatt installations by 2020 in the offshore wind industry. China’s offshore wind industry has seen robust growth over the past few years. XEMC Windpower Co. Ltd, one of China’s leading offshore Wind OEMs, is capitalizing on […]

Indonesia: A Revolution in Energy Production

Semen Indonesia, the nation’s largest cement maker, has achieved major savings in its operating costs by replacing coal with natural waste as fuel for electricity generation (husks and shells from tobacco, cashew and coconut production). As a result, Semen Indonesia’s costs of revenue dropped 2% year-on-year in the first half of this year to Rp […]

Meeting China’s Burgeoning Renewables Sector’s Engineering Service Needs

With a population of over 1.3 billion, China is the world’s leading energy consumer, and the vast majority of its electricity comes from domestically mined coal. But the Asian nation is cutting its dependence on fossil fuels and replacing it with renewables at breakneck speed to meet rapidly growing energy demands and address acute air […]

China Merchants New Energy Group Co. Ltd Signed a Strategic Cooperation Agreement for Power Plant Detection with TÜV NORD Group

In 11th October 2016, China Merchants New Energy Group Co. Ltd and TÜV NORD Group signed a strategic cooperation agreement in Shanghai. Li Hong, CFO of China Merchants New Energy Group Co. Ltd and chairman of China Territory Affairs Management Committee, Dr. Dirk Stenkamp, TÜV NORD Group CEO, Ren Jun, TÜV NORD Asia Pacific CEO, […]

Europe & UK

Apricum Secures New Investor Habdank for German ASEAN Power Highlighting Strong Interest in Southeast Asia’s Solar Potential

German ASEAN Power has sold 50% of its company shares to new strategic investor Habdank Group, turnkey PV power plant construction specialists. Habdank was selected after a rigorous investor search conducted by Apricum – The Cleantech Advisory, the Berlin-based transaction and strategy advisory firm specialized in clean technologies. The deal also includes additional funding instruments […]

Arise Acquires the Bröcklingberget Project from Ownpower Projects

A company within the Arise AB group recently entered into an agreement for and acquired all shares in Bröcklingberget Vindkraft AB, which is the project company that has the rights to the Bröcklingberget wind power project (“the Project”). Since previously, Arise has an option to acquire the Project from Ownpower Projects Europe AB (“OPP”). The Project has […]

Tenders for determining the financial support of ground-mounted PV systems

A financial support of electricity from newly commissioned ground-mounted systems is possible only through a successful participation in the tender, in which the amount of financial support is determined, § 55 paragraph 3 Renewable Energies Act ( EEG ) . The legal bases for this are § 55 EEG and on the basis of § 88 EEG […]

Suntech Announces Withdrawal from EU Price Undertaking

Wuxi Suntech Power Co. Ltd., one of the World’s leading solar module manufacturers, announced that it has voluntarily withdrawn from the European Union’s (EU) Price Undertaking Agreement and that the EU accepted Suntech’s decision on October 11, 2016. The main reason for the voluntary withdrawal was that EU customers did not agree with the MIP for […]


Electrifying the world

By Tomi Motoi, GE representative to the International Energy Agency The energy system drives today’s economic and social progress. Global energy investment in 2015 accounted for nearly 2.4 percent of global GDP—electricity, including networks, accounted for 37 percent of this investment[1], serving worldwide energy demand and providing critical energy access to millions. Electricity also plays […]

EQ Solar RPO Map Of India

(166) Related posts: ABB India and Welspun Energy advance India’s solar power ambition EQ Solar Map Of India 2016 Corporate India reinforces India’s commitments at National Seminar ahead of CoP 21 EIB announces largest ever loan in India and new office at EU-India summit


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EQ Solar Map Of India 2016

Anand Gupta 0

Solar Map Of India 2016 Dear Solar Industry Colleagues, Warm Greetings from EQ Int’l <www.EQMagPro.com> After Massive Success of EQ Solar Map of INDIA 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th & 6th Edition, EQ plans the following Solar Maps for 2016-2017 1. EQ Solar Map of India 7th Edition 2017 2. EQ Solar PV RoofTop & […]

Average annual growth rate of renewable energy capacity and biofuels production

Source:REN21 (46) Related posts: Moody’s: India’s substantial growth in renewable energy capacity will challenge fossil fuel operators Pitfalls in renewable energy growth flagged Pitfalls in renewable energy growth flagged Renewable Energy Provisions in the revised Tariff Policy-Long term growth trajectory of renewable purchase Obligations (RPOs)-Reg.

Switch To Solar Energy

Get in touch with a solar installer,who will guide you on project design and familiarize you with policies and regulation..more information refer infograph Infograph Source:ET   (36) Related posts: Commission implementing regulation terminating the partial interim review of the anti-dumping and countervailing measures applicable to imports of crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules and key components (i.e. […]


Vivint Solar Appoints Key Leadership To Execute New Strategy

Vivint Solar, a leading full-service residential solar provider, recently announced that it has named Chance Allred as chief sales officer, Paul Dickson as chief revenue officer and Bryan Christiansen as chief operations officer. “The leadership team and I are honing in on our strategy and focusing on our top five priorities, two of which are building a […]

Airbnb Partners With SolarCity to Bring Solar Energy to the Home Sharing Community

Airbnb, the world’s leading community-driven hospitality company and SolarCity Corp. (NASDAQ: SCTY), the nation’s #1 solar power provider, are announcing a new partnership that will connect Airbnb hosts and guests with an affordable and sustainable way to power their homes with solar energy, and are releasing estimates of the environmental benefits of home sharing for […]

Research finds roughly one-half of consumers who have solar or EV technology have both

Recently, Smart Grid Consumer Collaborative (SGCC) has released its latest research, Consumer Driven Technologies. Compiled on behalf of and available to its nationwide energy industry members, the report sheds light on consumer attitudes and their interest in solar power and electric vehicles. Consumer Driven Technologies surveyed 1,571 respondents on four distinct technologies and services: residential solar, […]


100 MW Kathu solar project in the Northern Cape of South Africa starts construction

An ENGIE-led consortium with partners, SENER and ACCIONA, held a ground-breaking ceremony for their Kathu Solar Park in the town of Kathu, in the Northern Cape Province, brought together local officials, guests and the project’s South African partners. Construction has begun following the signing of a 20-year Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) between ENGIE and Eskom, South Africa’s state-owned power utility. […]

Saudi ACWA Power aims to build 340 MW wind plant in Turkey

Saudi Arabia-based power and water project developer ACWA Power is aiming to build a 340 megawatt (MW) wind power plant in Turkey, the head of its Turkish operations told Reuters, as Riyadh and Ankara seek to deepen their energy ties. ACWA is a new entrant to the burgeoning Turkish electricity market, where demand is growing […]

First Solar Commissions 52.5MW Shams Ma’an Plant in Jordan

First Solar, Inc.recently announced that it has commissioned the 52.5 megawatt (MW)AC Shams Ma’an project in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, on schedule.The plant is owned by a consortium of investors consisting of Diamond Generating Europe Ltd., Nebras Power Q.S.C. and the Kawar Group.First Solar significantly contributed to the development of the project before divesting its […]

PV Manufacturing

NREL, International Colleagues Propose Strategy for Stable, Commercial Perovskite Solar Cells

A strategy for producing stable and commercially available perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has been proposed by Kai Zhu and Keith Emery at the Energy Department’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), in collaboration with Nam-Gyu Park (Korea), Michael Grätzel (Switzerland), and Tsutomu Miyasaka (Japan). Solar cells using a halide perovskite with an organic cation such as methylammonium […]

Singulus Technologies AG: Listing Of The New Shares On The Frankfurt Stock Exchange To Take Place On 12 October 2016

SINGULUS TECHNOLOGIES Aktiengesellschaft  had, on 6 October 2016, resolved the rights issue through the issuance of 2,021,938 new shares.The implementation of the capital increase was entered on the Commercial Register of the company on Friday, 7 October 2016. The share capital of the company of € 6,065,814, divided into 6,065,814 no par value bearer shares […]

Polysilicon Market Worth 8.90 Billion USD by 2021

The report “Polysilicon Market by End-use industry  and Region Global Forecast to 2021”, published by MarketsandMarkets, the market is estimated to grow from USD 4.71 Billion in 2015 to USD 8.90 Billion by 2021, at a CAGR of 13.0%, in terms of value. Early buyers will receive 10% customization on this report. The market is […]

Business & Finance

Isolux Corsan sells a wind farm in Argentina for 25 million dollars to Sideli and Sidsel

Isolux Corsan has reached an agreement with the companies Sideli, S.A. and Sidsel, S.A. for the sale of developments of the Loma Blanca Wind Farm, located in Argentina’s Chubut province. The price of the transaction, which includes the four phases of the wind farm, amounts to 25 million dollars. The sale of Loma Blanca wind farm […]

Renew Financial Closes $200 Million Credit Facility

Renew Financial, one of the nation’s leading clean energy finance companies, recently announced that it has closed a $200 million revolving credit facility. The new credit facility will provide financing for residential PACE (Property Assessed Clean Energy), a program that enables homeowners to finance energy efficiency, renewable energy and water efficiency projects through their property taxes. […]

Pattern Energy Completes Acquisition of Armow Wind Power Facility

Pattern Energy Group Inc., recently announced it has completed the acquisition of a 90 MW interest in the 179 MW Armow Wind power facility in Ontario, Canada from Pattern Energy Group LP (“Pattern Development”). Pattern Energy acquired the interest in Armow Wind for a total cash consideration of approximately US$133 million, representing a 9.5-10.5x multiple on […]

Solar Off Grid & Roof Tops

Konkan Railway installs solar plants at stations

Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd has installed solar power plants of various capacities in some stations. Highlighting the achievements of KRCL on the occasion of its 26th foundation day, a press release said here that KRCL has installed a 25-kWp solar power plant at Kudal station and a 20-kWp plant at Sawantwadi. Other stations such as Thivim and […]

JNU to get 200 solar power operated street lights

The lush green campus of Jawaharlal Nehru University is set to get solar power operated street lights, Vice Chancellor Jagadesh Kumar said recently. The varsitys solar street lights initiative has received aid from the Ministry of New and Renewable energy and is in sync JNUs plan to cut down on its carbon emission. “Ministry of New and […]

Solar panels donated to KNP

The Wildlife Conservation Trust, Mumbai has donated 178 solar panels and the entire charging unit systems in an integrated form to cover all the 178 anti-poaching camps of the Kaziranga National Park. Informing this, the Eastern Assam Wildlife Division, (Kaziranga), DFO Suvasish Das told this correspondent that earlier the authority of the Kaziranga National Park had […]

Solar Balance of Systems

Sollega Demonstrates FastRack510 Flat Roof Racking and New FastRack String Inverter Mount at Intersolar 2016!

Sollega will exhibit at Intersolar North America the week of July 12-14, 2016. The conference will take place in the beautiful city of San Francisco. Be sure to stop by our booth #9252 and see our new string inverter mounting solutions as well as our FastRack510 ballasted flat roof PV racking. Why come to see us? […]

Intersolar: skytron energy launches updated PVGuard®, with integrated controls

skytron® energy, a First Solar company and the global market leader in utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) monitoring, recently announced the launch of version 2.3 of its PVGuard® Supervision Platform.The updated version will be showcased at Intersolar 2016, and features a new integrated control function, allowing operators to directly connect to a plant via a customized dashboard, activating […]

Global Solar Off-Grid Semi-Annual Market Report

The data in this report is limited to that provided by GOGLA member companies and Lighting Global Quality Verified companies using an online questionnaire. Companies are classified either as distributors of other companies’ branded products or as manufacturers of their own branded products. Only aggregate data is presented here, and it is only included when it has satisfied our ‘three data point […]

Solar Inverters

Smart Module Technology From Sma And Tigo Can Now Be Planned With Sunny Design

Sunny Design, the design software for PV systems from SMA Solar Technology AG, now allows PV systems to be planned using smart module technology from Tigo Energy. System planners and installers are now able to ensure optimal and technically sound PV system configurations using TS4-R module optimizers. The number of module optimizers required for a […]

Ingeteam will supply the control, protection and measurement system for the biggest photovoltaic plant in Latin America

Ingeteam will supply the control, protection and measurement system of the El Romero Photovoltaic Plant’s booster substation in Chile for its client Acciona Energía. On this occasion, through its Chilean branch Ingeteam SpA, Ingeteam will supply the complete control, measurement and protection system for the plant, which consists of the detailed electrical engineering, cabinet supply, […]

Schneider to invest €100 million in India in R&D and manufacturing

As the global head of Schneider Jean-Pascal Tricoire spoke to the media here, the €26.6-billion French company’s revenue in rupee terms moved from ₹140,000 crore to ₹200,000 crore within seven to eight minutes. Anil Chaudhry, Country President and Managing Director of Global Operations, Schneider India, congratulated Tricoire with the “good news”. For a French-headquartered company, […]

Sungrow Presents Central and String Inverters at IGEM 2016

Sungrow, the world’s largest PV inverter manufacturer, showcased the SG2500-MV central inverter and the new SG60KTL string inverter, at the International Greentech & Eco Products Exhibition & Conference Malaysia 2016 (IGEM 2016).Sungrow’s central inverter SG2500-MV is best characterized by its cost effectiveness and highly reliable containerized design. The 20-foot container design reduces the costs of […]

Renewable Energy

Prime Minister Dedicates 1732 MW -Three Hydro Projects in Himachal

Prime Minister, Shri Narendra Modi appreciated the contribution of Public sector and said these hydro projects will bring prosperity to the State of Himachal and other parts of the country while dedicating the flagship 800 MW Hydro Power Station of NTPC- Koldam, 520 MW Parvati Project of NHPC and 412 MW Rampur Hydro Station of […]

MNRE to seek Cabinet nod to classify hydro power as renewable

New & Renewable Energy Ministry will seek Cabinet approval to a proposal to reclassifying large hydro power plants as renewable projects, a move which can help India achieve clean power capacity of 230 GW by 2022. “I have a study carried out by Power Secretary and his team which demonstrates that except 4-5 countries almost universally […]

MNRE: First Meeting of CEC after receiving EOI for evaluation of schemes under Biomass Power, Bagasse Cogeneration and Non-bagasse cogeneration in Industries.

The undersigned is directed to refer to OM of even no. dated 17th October 2016….. For more information please see above link: (0) Related posts: MNRE: Further simplification and improvement of the procedure for online submission of Total Bill of Material (BoM) and application for issue of Concessional Customs Duty Certificates (CCDC) and Exicse Duty […]