When the sunlight hits the semiconductor surface, an electron springs up and is attracted towards the N-type semiconductor materials. These will create more negatives in the N-type and more positives in the P-type semiconductors generating a higher flow of electricity. The Sun is the fundamental driving force for energy in the Earth’s climate system. It is of crucial importance to understand fully the conditions of its arrival at the top of the atmosphere and its transformation through the earth.
The amount of solar power available per unit area is known as ir-radiance. Ir-radiance is the radiometric term for the power of electromagnetic radiation at a surface, per unit area. It is used when electromagnetic radiation is incident on the surface. Irradiance fluctuates according to the weather and Sun’s location in the sky. The solar constant is the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation, measured on the outer surface of Earth’s atmosphere on the plane perpendicular to the rays. Solar constant does not remain fixed over long periods of time. The average value cited 1.366S W/m2 is equivalent to 1.96 calories per minute per square centimetre or 1.96 Langleys (Ly) per minute.
In thin-film solar technology, a very thin layer of chosen semiconductors material is deposited on to either coated glass or stainless steel or a polymer substrate. Various thin-film technologies are being developed to reduce the amount of light-absorbing materials required to construct the solar cell which results in reduction of processing cost. However, conversion efficiencies are also lower in these cases, as the modules are of lesser efficiency for some level of energy requirement, longer collection area is required and consequently more requirement of land. This technology is, therefore, applied in non-productive land particularly in deserts. This technology became popular compared to wafer silicon due to lower cost, flexibility, lighter weights and ease of integration.
In Manipur, sufficient non-agricultural areas are hardly available, particularly in the valley portion, as such application of thin-film technology cannot be adopted. However, rivers in the valley area like the Imphal river and the Nambul river flowing north to south direction can be utilised for installing solar panels. The areas of Mongsangei in the proximity of Nambul River and Ningomthongjao and Kyamgeiin the proximity of Imphal River can be utilized for installation of such power plants based on photovoltaic modules.
The state of Tripura had been benefited with the commissioning of gas based power plants utilizing the gas resources available in the State. The combined Cycle Project is located at Monarchak, Sonamura in Sepahijala District around 60 KM away from Agartala, the Capital of Tripura. The project runs on Combined Cycle Mode and consists of one Gas Turbine of 65.42MW and one Steam Turbine of 35.58 MW each of BHEL supplied, operating an natural gas obtained from the gas fields of Oil & Natural Gas Commission (ONGC). The gas turbine started commercial operation in 2015 and the Steam Turbine in 2017.
Recently the Asian Development Bank (ADB) sanctioned Rs. 1925 crore to the Tripura State Electricity Corporation under the initiative of the Government of Tripura for upgradation of power generation and distribution in Tripura.